Benefits of Folic Acid



Folic acid, a water soluble B vitamin, occurs naturally in food and can also be taken as food supplements. Naturally occurring sources of folic acid includes green leaf vegetables (spinach, turnip), poultry, pork, shellfish, peas beans, liver, cereal and citrus furies. Folic acid is one of the necessary elements required for production and maintenance of human cell.

Folic acid deficiency and diseases:

Folic acid deficiency may cause various disorders. Some of these are highlighted below.

o Folic acid deficiency may cause weakness, poor growth, graying hair, inflammation of the tongue, palpitations and behavioral disorder.

o Folic acid deficiency is also associated with common stomach disorders including diarrhea, mouth ulcer and peptic ulcer, loss of appetite and weight loss.

o Folic acid deficiency in pregnant women may cause premature delivery, low birth weight of infants and infants with neural tube defects (NTD s).

o Anemia is sometimes associated with the advance stage of folic acid deficiency.

o You may need increased folic acid intake if you are anemic, have kidney or liver disease, pregnant or breast-feeding. In all such cases you should consult your doctor before taking folic acid supplements.

o The maximum folic acid intake should be limited to 1000 micro grams per day or as directed by the health care provider.

o Some other medications may interact with folic acid includes medicines for epilepsy, medicines for controlling blood sugar, methotrexate (medicines for treating cancer) and diuretics. If you are taking any of these medicines, you should contact your doctor.

o If you are 50 years of age, you should carry out your vitamin B 12 level before taking supplemental diet of folic acid, as these are chances of interaction between B12 vitamins and folic acid.

Folic acid benefits:

Role of folic acid during pregnancy:

Neural tube defects (NTD s) is a major defect of brain and spine in babies causing damage to the brain or spine. The major NTD s include spina bifida ( spine problem) and

Anencephaly (brain problem) and up to 70% of these NTD s can be prevented by taking enough folic acid every day before conception and during pregnancy.

A woman is likely to be at higher risk to deliver a NTD s affected baby if she has a previous NTD s affected pregnancy, is diabetic, takes medicine to treat epilepsy and is of Hispanic ethnicity.

Every woman, who is likely to become pregnant, should take 400 micro grams of folic acid every day. Consuming supplemental folic acid in addition to a healthy folic acid rich diet before and during pregnancy significantly reduces the risk of having neural tube defects in babies.

Spina Bifida and Anencephaly disorders: Spina bifida is a spine disorder and part of spine at the lower end is damaged and a sack of fluid is entrapped in the baby’s back. Most children born with this spinal disorder survives full life and often has lifelong symptoms including unable to move lower part of the body, loss of bowl and bladder and fluid pressure to the brain.

Anencephaly is a brain disorder and part of the brain skull bones may not form in babies. Most of the babies having this defects die before or just after birth.

Role of folic acid and heart disease:

Low concentration of folic acid may increase the amino acid homocysteine in the blood levels and consequently increases the risk of heart disease. High level of homocysteine may damage the coronary arteries or can cause the blood clots, however there is no evidence that supplemented folic acid will reduce the risk of heart disease.

Role of folic acid and cancer:

Folic acid is one of the essential elements involved in the synthesis of DNA and its deficiency may cause defects in DNA and consequently may lead to cancer. There are enough evidence to conclude that the deficiency of folic acid is associated with the increased risk of breast, colon and pancreatic cancer, however it is not advisable to supplement folic acid for reducing the risk of such cancers.


Source by Rich Marsiglia

Antioxidants – What Are Antioxidants and the Benefits of Antioxidant Fruits & Supplements


I am sure you have heard the word "antioxidants" many times. You probably know from the news and articles that you have read that fruits and vegetables have high levels of antioxidants but trying to understand what antioxidants actually are can be very confusing. Well, here it is going to be explained quite simply.

In order to explain what antioxidants are, you need to understand that your body is made of trillions of different cells. Each organ in your body (for example, the heart, the brain, the liver, etc.) is made up of many different cells.

As we get older, cells in our bodies can get damaged by many different things. For instance, pollution can damage our cells … poor diets can damage our cells … poor water can damage our cells … smoking (as well as second hand smoke can damage our cells.), Etc. Depending on the extent of the damage, different organs (remember, each organ is made up of many cells) can get damaged. Once they get damaged too much, it leads to problems such as heart disease, liver problems, cancer, alzheimers, etc.

Antioxidants help repair damaged cells in our bodies and antioxidants also help prevent our healthy cells from getting damaged. Hopefully, if we take enough antioxidants when we are younger, we can prevent ourselves from getting problems such as heart disease, liver problems and cancer.

So it is definitely good to try to prevent your cells from getting damaged. You can start this at any age.

Antioxidants can be found in our foods as well as in different supplements.

The fruits with the most antioxidants in them are any kind of berries … blueberries, strawberries, etc. Dark green vegetables also contain a lot of antioxidants such as spinach and kale.

Some good supplements that contain high levels of antioxidants are green tea extract, grape seed extract and turmeric curcumin.


Source by Hope Pope

The Benefits Of Having A Green Smoothie For Breakfast


We’ve all heard the saying – Eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dinner like a pauper. The idiom simply highlights the importance of breakfast as the most important meal of the day. After a long break of almost 8 hours, it is necessary to supply your body with high-energy foods to kick start your metabolism.

But, in today’s times, we’re in such a hurry to leave home, that there is hardly any time to dish out a nutritious meal. Either we go without it or stop by at a local café for a cheese burger and cappuccino. Cheese burger and coffee is enough to satisfy hunger, but not a food item we would recommend for breakfast. Green smoothies definitely make a healthier substitute. And, the biggest advantage is it finds its place in a crammed schedule without making any fusses.

What are Green Smoothies?

Green smoothies are blend of fresh green-colored vegetables such as kale, Swiss chard, collard greens and spinach. It also includes herbs such as parsley and mint. Green smoothies no longer have the bland – bitter taste they used too. Fruity additions in the form of juice and fruit chunks give them a fresh, tangy and delicious taste.

Benefits of Green Smoothies for Breakfast

1. A small glass packs a nutritional punch. Fruits and vegetables are a good source of vitamins (A, E, C and D) and minerals (zinc, potassium, phosphate, iron and magnesium), fiber and antioxidants needed to sustain health, growth and development. Drinking a smoothie is as good as eating fruits and vegetables in their unprocessed forms unlike juices that discard the indigestible residue.

2. Green smoothies help lose weight. They are nutrient-rich but not calorie dense. Thus, they control-calorie intake while satisfying your taste buds.

3. Smoothies made by blending vegetables can be tasty too. You can add fruits of your choice to give it a better taste.

4. Fruits and vegetables in their blended form provide enough energy to sustain daily functions. If you drink a glass of green smoothie for breakfast, you will notice you are more alter and active. It builds immune strength and improves the quality of your life as it eliminates junk and empty calories.

5. Another benefit of drinking a green smoothie for breakfast is it only takes a few minutes to prepare. Besides, blenders have made easier to prepare smoothies. Additionally, if you don’t have time to drink it before you head for office, you can bottle it and drink it on the way.

Breakfast Smoothie Recipes

  • Kale – Pineapple- Almond Milk Smoothies:

This recipe requires 1 cup unsweetened almond milk, 1 cup finely chopped kale, ½ cup of pineapple juice, ½ cup of diced pineapple pieces and 1 banana. Blend all the ingredients and serve chilled.

  • Spinach Smoothie:

Blend 2 cups of spinach leaves, 1 peeled pear, 10-15 green grapes, 2 tablespoons chopped avocado, 1 tablespoon fresh lime juice and 150 grams fat-free yoghurt in a blender. The fruits will dissipate the bland taste of spinach.

  • Kale-Romaine Smoothie:

It is better known as the green machine smoothie as it includes not one but two types of green vegetables kale and romaine. Take 4 leaves of chopped kale. 6 leaves of chopped romaine, ½ cup diced pineapple, ½ cup diced mango, an inches of freshly chopped ginger and parsley and blend it to a smooth texture.


Source by Hannah Homess

How Real Are the Health Benefits of Chocolate?


Chocolate as medicine? It’s enough to make a chocoholic’s heart flutter to think that what the Aztecs called the gift of the gods might lower blood pressure, prevent heart disease, make diabetes more manageable and reduce the risk of cancer. But before you make a beeline to the closest box of bonbons, take a few moments to find out how to get the most benefit from this gift of nature without the side effects of sweets.

From aphrodisiacs to antioxidants

The high priests of the Aztecs and the Mayas reserved the drink that they called xocolatl for ceremonials because of its medicinal and possibly aphrodisiac properties. The conquistadors introduced it to Spain in the early 1500s. Flavored with pepper, cinnamon, vanilla, almonds, sugar and even flowers, the supposed health benefits of this chocolate drink made it a favorite among the wealthy until tea and coffee replaced it in the 19th century.

Entrepreneurs of the Industrial Revolution in Europe produced solid chocolate with its sweet flavor and velvety, melt-in-your-mouth texture. Late in the 20th century observant scientists recognized cravings and mood elevations among chocolate aficionados and began to explore the chemistry of the cocoa bean. Their discoveries of brain-active chemicals and antioxidants have generated an avalanche of enthusiasm for chocolate. Is it justified?

Why chocolate makes you feel good

Chocolate lovers know that an ounce or two of their favorite treat gives them a noticeable lift. Objective researchers find that improved mood, heightened sensitivity, euphoria and a sense of well-being are very real effects of eating chocolate. They also have found that the maximum benefit comes only from dark chocolate.

Chocolate contains biogenic amines, substances that energize brain connections. These include serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine, long familiar to biochemists for their ability to regulate mood.

Anandemide is similar to chemicals in marijuana that contribute to the euphoria that smokers of the weed experience. Whether or not this contributes to a true chocolate addiction is still a matter of controversy.

Can eating chocolate help you to live longer?

Long life and freedom from disease result from many different factors but chocolate does contain several nutrients that contribute to good health. We can find all of them in plant foods but they are especially abundant in the cocoa bean that yields modern civilization’s favorite treat.

Polyphenols, which number in the thousands, are the darlings of today’s nutrition experts. Chocolate in powdered form yields the highest concentration of these substances. Among them are flavonoids that cause the blood to clot less readily, thereby reducing the threat of a heart attack or stroke. Some flavonoids provide antioxidant activity that protects the lining of blood vessels; others improve the action of insulin.

One and one-half ounces of chocolate provide about 15 percent of our needs for magnesium, a mineral that is important to every cell in the body. Magnesium deficiency is associated with premenstrual syndrome, high blood pressure, stroke and abnormal heart rhythm. Magnesium contributes to bone strength and it is one of the essential nutrients in warding off osteoporosis.

High blood pressure is one of the most important factors in the development of heart disease and it affects more than 25 percent of the U.S. population. Eating about 3 ½ ounces of dark chocolate each day can cause a modest lowering of blood pressure. That’s the good news. The bad news is that amount contains about 500 calories. If you add it to your regular diet and don’t burn it off with exercise you can expect to gain 4 pounds a month.

There is no evidence that polyphenols in chocolate can prevent cancer but this is the same group of chemicals, abundant in fruits and vegetables, that is associated with a lower incidence of several types of cancer.

What about the fat?

An excess of sweets does contribute to being overweight but it’s the fat content of most forms of chocolate that makes the calories add up quickly. The news isn’t all bad, however. Oleic acid, which makes up about one third of the fat in chocolate, actually lowers cholesterol slightly. Stearic acid contributes another third but it is regarded as cholesterol neutral and does not elevate blood cholesterol.

Choosing chocolate: health versus hedonism

A true chocoholic will cheerfully savor any kind of chocolate but it’s only the dark variety that has significant health benefits. Processes that take away the bitterness also remove most of the healthy factors such as flavonoids. Milk and sugar dilute the rest.

Those ancient Aztecs had it right. When they added pepper and spices to their ceremonial drink they pumped up the level of flavonoids. When you brew a cup of hot chocolate from natural cocoa powder and add a little cinnamon, nutmeg or vanilla you’ll be doing the same thing. Those spices will replace some of the antioxidants that are neutralized by milk.

Natural cocoa powder is the healthiest form but it’s also the most bitter. Add a little to coffee, cereal, dessert (especially puddings) and yogurt. Start with about ¼ teaspoon until you find the amount that gives you the most enjoyment without the bothersome bitterness.

Dutch cocoa, also known as European style, is less bitter than natural cocoa powder but it loses some antioxidants in the manufacturing process. You might find that you’ll like its milder flavor for cereal and coffee more than the natural powder.

Dark chocolate is the kind that scientists work with in their studies on health benefits. Recipes vary in the actual content of the flavonoid-containing chocolate. Look for a chocolate liquor content of 60 to 70 percent or more.

Milk chocolate has almost none of the good stuff. The flavonoids are almost nonexistent because the alkalinization process that removes the bitterness removes most of them and adding milk removes the rest. Milk chocolate usually contains more sugar, less minerals and more fats. But hey – you’re not eating this stuff to get healthy anyhow, are you?

White chocolate is CINO – chocolate in name only. It’s made from cocoa butter (the fatty content of the cocoa bean), milk solids and sugar. It’s about as nutritious as a glazed donut but we all need an occasional fun food now and then.

Chocolate hazards

A little chocolate – about one to one-and-a-half ounces per day – has some modest health benefits and if you substitute those 150-200 calories for some other food it probably won’t mess up your attempts to maintain normal weight. A good start would be to have a little chocolate pick-me-up in place of that glazed donut or bear claw Danish.

If you have trouble sleeping even though you gave up regular coffee you might not want to eat chocolate late in the day. The amount of caffeine in most forms of chocolate is small relative to an ordinary cup of coffee but for caffeine-sensitive individuals it’s enough to make a difference.

Persons who have experienced atrial fibrillation, an abnormal heart rhythm that sometimes leads to stroke, should not overindulge. That modest suggestion of an ounce or so is not a problem but eating several ounces at a sitting – it happens – can trigger that abnormal rhythm.


Source by Philip Goscienski

Herbal Tea Benefits


When you think about what hot drinks you want to have at the morning, or for that matter, at any other time of the day, consider this: caffeine can seriously affect your health. Now it is no secret that some of the tea companies use caffeine in their products; you can of course choose those that don’t – for example, let us take Wissotzky tea: Black tea has 60 – 70 mg of caffeine, Green tea has 15 – 20 mg while Herbal Tea would have no caffeine at all.

The variety of tastes is quite large: Raspberry Tea, Peach Tea, Nana Tea, Lemon Tea, Cherry Tea – and most importantly – no side effects. It may appear surprising that drinking something like tea should cause anything at all, yet it is important to know the facts. As turns out, caffeine may act upon our moods – especially if you have a tendency towards depression – be aware – consuming caffeine may depress you even more.

To those of you with depression tendencies – avoid caffeine at all cause! Especially when mixed with white sugar, it operates on the brain and may make you feel worse than you did before (brown sugar is better anyway). As you have surely by this time realized – coffee may be your biggest enemy. Black coffee consists 150 mg of caffeine and Instant coffee 120 mg. If you’re a “heavy drinker”, do the math. And let us not forget Coca Cola. This same drink that has conquered the world so fast is another host of caffeine. It is not in vain that caffeine is compared to drugs – indeed, some of us are real Cola-addicts! (I confess, I used to be one myself)

Please, don’t be depressed by this, my intention in precisely the opposite one: my solution was simply not drinking it anymore. There are plenty of other delicious drinks that consist of herbs, and work to improve you daily nutrition. I know that simply refusing something you like may sound hard to do, yet it is quite simple when you try.


Source by Jennie Winter

The Health Benefits of Papaya And It’s Role In Fighting Cancer and the Immune System


Papaya (PawPaw) is a sweet and succulent fruit found in tropical climates around the world. Its health benefits are many; it is naturally rich in vitamins, minerals, lycopene, beta-carotene and other vital nutrients. Many cultures successfully use the leaf, seeds, skin and pulp of this miraculous fruit for various diseases, infections and skin conditions. Today, researchers and scientists throughout the medical community are stepping up the investigation into the health benefits of papaya leaf (pawpaw twig) and the role it plays in fighting cancer, wound care, its anti-inflammatory benefits and how it helps to strengthen the immune system. Groundbreaking studies are showing that the enzymes and other compounds found in the leaves, skin, pulp and seeds of the have a variety of medicinal uses.

The Parts of Papaya That Are Effective

One of the reasons that papaya or paw paw is so unique is that all parts of this fruit, including the leaves, flesh, skin and seeds have nutritional and health benefits. In the tropical areas of the world where papaya is readily available, the consumption and use of papaya for enjoyment and medicinal cures are part of everyday life.

Papaya Leaf Tea: Papaya Leaf Tea reduces inflammation, activates immune system response, and inhibits tumor cell growth through the strengthening of the immune system and increasing the natural anti-tumor effects that occur in immune response.[1] The tea is ideal for individuals that enjoy drinking herbal teas and many find that it has a similar taste to green tea; but it is packed with more nutritional and health benefits.

Papaya Leaf Extract: Papaya leaves are successfully used for Dengue Fever, digestive upset and for treatments of serious illnesses including cancer. Scientific research indicates that papaya leaf extract regulates T-cells and increase the immune system response to cancer.[2] Papaya leaves are not readily available in stores in the United States; a concentrated extract of the leaf is available in both capsules and liquid formulas from the company Herbal Papaya.

Papaya Seeds: Papaya seeds are proven effective for eliminating human intestinal parasites without significant side effects.[3] Papaya seed extract capsules have antihelminthic and anti-amoebic properties that kill parasites and intestinal worms throughout the digestive system.

Fermented Papaya: A current clinical trial at Ohio State University is evaluating the benefits of using fermented papaya in diabetic wound healing. Known for its antioxidant properties and protection from oxidative damage; the study centers on determining the angiogenic response of wound sites.[4]

Papaya Flesh: The nutritional benefits gained from the regular consumption of papaya are extraordinary. This nutrient rich fruit aids in digestion, helps to strengthen immune systems, and lessens inflammation in joints and throughout the body. Papain, which is concentrated in papaya, breaks down proteins and aids in digestion. Organic papaya fruit and leaf juice is ideal for individuals that do not have regular access to fresh organic papayas in their area.

Papaya Skin: The skin of the papaya has been used for generations to assist in burns and wound healing by placing it directly on infections and other skin maladies. Additionally, when making smoothies with the papaya flesh, the fruit does not need to be skinned.

Understanding The Immune System

The immune system is a network of organs and cells in the human body that defends against toxins, foreign invaders, and infections. When an invader is detected, the immune system launches a fighting response by producing antibodies. The immune system is made of white blood cells including T-cells and B-cells. T-cells are responsible for coordinating the immune response to destroy infected cells. B-cells on the other hand make the antibodies that bind to invaders to allow the other cells to destroy the invaders. When the T-cells do not send signals to the B-cells, the B-cell is not able to make the antibodies necessary for an attack.

Autoimmune Diseases

When the immune system is not working properly, it can become unable to detect the difference between healthy and unhealthy cells and attack normal healthy cells in error. This results in a variety of autoimmune diseases where the body actually turns against itself causing damage to healthy cells and tissues. It is estimated that nearly 24 million Americans suffer from autoimmune diseases including Celiac Disease, Type 1 Diabetes, Graves Disease, Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Multiple Sclerosis, Psoriasis, Rheumatoid Arthritis and many others. [5] Prescription medications for autoimmune diseases often focus on suppressing the immune system’s response thereby limiting the natural ability of the immune system to fight off critical invaders including those that fight cancer.

How T-Cells Are Related To Cancer Treatment & Immunotherapy

T-cells cells help our bodies fight infection and attack and destroy invading infectious agents. They are produced in bone marrow and are further developed and matured in the thymus gland. After they become mature, they are found in blood and the lymphatic system. Essentially, T-cells directly influence the natural immune response in suppressing tumors and cancerous cells. A healthy immune system produces T-cells regularly to help fight diseases, infections and cancer causing toxins. The immune system is central to protecting against AIDS, cancer and other diseases of the autoimmune system. Immunotherapy is a treatment that uses the natural immune response to wage a war against cancer and other diseases. Today, this is a growing area of cancer treatment that focuses on boosting the immune system so that it can effectively combat foreign invaders including those responsible for cancer. Researchers and scientists at Stanford University’s Cancer Immunology & Immunotherapy Research Program are working on new strategies to exploit the human body’s natural immune response to destroy tumors. These include therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, and cell-based therapies to increase the patient’s immune response to attack cancer in their body.

Papaya Increases Regulatory T-Cells

Activated platelets help the immune system’s response in inflammatory diseases. Platelets are an integral part of the body’s natural inflammatory process and are currently being researched to determine their role in fighting inflammation and improveming T-cell responses. Recent studies in mice show the role of platelets can enhance the antigen presentation, improve T-cell responses and play a critical function in normal immunity.[6] Carica papaya leaf (paw paw twig) extracts can be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters aiding in tumor cell regulation, according to the Department of Genetics and Biotechnology at the University of Calabar in Nigeria.[7] In addition, researchers have found evidence to support that Carica papaya (paw paw leaf) extracts increase T-cells and help to mediate the body’s inflammatory response and potentially alleviate inflammation throughout the body.


Inflammation can occur anywhere in the human body. It is a process caused when the immune system triggers a response to an outside invader or foreign substances. In autoimmune diseases, the system triggers the response when there are no substances to fight off. Symptoms of inflammation include swollen joints, pain, stiffness, and general flu symptoms. Inflammation also can affect internal organs. Ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves have been shown to reduce anti-inflammatory activities in the body.[8] By reducing inflammation and increasing T-cell activity, the body is more apt to fight foreign invaders that cause disease.

The Relationship Between Papaya And Cancer

Cancer causing toxins, tumors and other outside invaders are fought off by the immune system. A healthy immune system that has active and healthy T-cells is more able to fight off foreign substances that can lead to cancer and other serious health problems. Additionally, inflammation in the body can cause the immune system to function inadequately thereby increasing the risk for cancer. Carica papaya helps to reduce inflammation, increase healthy T-cell activity thereby encouraging a healthy and active response to cancerous cells in the body. The link between the consumption of papaya leaf extract, papaya leaf tea, and papaya and cancer in general will continue to be researched.

Papaya And Pregnancy

Grown in tropical areas throughout the world, papaya is a luscious and healthful fruit. As mentioned above, the seeds, leaves, flesh and skin all have medicinal qualities. Ripe papaya has not been found to be dangerous to pregnant women or their baby, however, unripe or green papaya early in a pregnancy can cause a miscarriage. In some parts of the world, unripe papaya is used to induce labor. Papain in high amounts from green papayas is believed to jumpstart and strengthens labor contractions, thereby hurrying along the process of labor. There currently is no scientific evidence to support this theory, however, thousands of women across the world standby this practice. It is important to note that medical practitioners recommend that pregnant women during the first two terms of pregnancy avoid unripe or green papaya as the same naturally occurring chemical reactions that can encourage labor can cause a spontaneous miscarriage.

Papaya Products & Better Health

Scientific research indicates that there is a positive relationship between papaya and cancer. Paw paw cell regulation is being researched throughout the world as a potential cure for autoimmune and other serious disorders. Papaya helps to increase the immune system so that the body is able to fight foreign invaders. Unfortunately, most people in North America do not have access to fresh papaya. Pure papaya products available include papaya leaf extract, papaya leaf tea and papaya seed extract in capsule form for individuals that do not have access to the fruit. Papaya leaves are not available in stores; therefore, to receive the health benefits of mentioned above, the extract from the leaves is the only way to receive its benefits. In the United States, you can purchase papaya leaf and juice products manufactured by Herbal Papaya online. Their organic seed extract is also available.

The relationship between the consumption of papaya and cancer is continuing to be researched throughout the world. The evidence is overwhelming that this magical fruit has significant beneficial health implications including the strengthening of the immune system, cell regulation, reduction of inflammation, and digestive benefits. Without access to fresh papaya and papaya leaves, customers interested in these health benefits must turn to natural papaya leaf extracts, papaya leaf teas and papaya seed extracts. In the US, you can obtain these products from Herbal Papaya, a pioneer manufacturer of Papaya Health and Wellness Supplements, (see their website at ).

[1]Noriko Otsuki, Nam H. Dang, Emi Kumagai, Akira Kondo, Satoshi Iwata, Chickao Morimoto. February 2010. Aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves exhibits anti-tumor activity and immunomodulatory effects. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Volume 127, Issue 3. 760-767.

[2]Abdullah, M., Chai, P.-S., Loh, C.-Y., Chong, M.-Y., Quay, H.-W., Vidyadaran, S., Seman, Z., Kandiah, M. and Seow, H.-F. (2011), Carica papaya increases regulatory T cells and reduces IFN-γ+CD4+ T cells in healthy human subjects. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 55: 803-806. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201100087

[3] John A.O Okeniyi, Tinuade A. Ogunlesi, oyeku A. Oyelami, and lateef A. Adeyemi. Journal of Medicinal Food. March 2007, 10(1): 194-196. Doi: 10.1089/jmf.2005.065

[4] U.S. National institutes of Health. Clinical Trials. Nutritional Regulation of Wound Inflammation: Part II (FPPT2DM-II)

[5] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women’s Health. Autoimmune Diseases: Overview. April 14, 2010. Retrieved October 17, 2012 from:

[6] Elzey, Bennet D., Sprague, Daniel L., Ratliff, Timothy L. The emerging role of platelets in adaptive immunity. Cellular Immunology, Volume 238, Issue 1 (November, 2005), p. 1-9.

[7] Ikepeme E.V., Ekaluo U.B., Kooffreh M.E., Udensi O. Phytochemistry and hematological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.) Pak J Biol Sci (Mar 15 2011) 14(6): 408-11. Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

[8] Owoyele B., Adebukola O., Funmilayo A., Soladoy A. Anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves. Inflammopharmacology. (August 2008). University of Ilorin Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences P. M. B. Ilorin, Nigeria


Source by Jennifer I Swank